In one of the largest quantum simulations ever performed, up to 53 trapped ion qubits have been used to simulate properties of many body magnetic interactions. The qubits are each prepared with individual control, and measured in a single shot with nearly 100% efficiency. This allows the observation of arbitrary correlation functions that cannot be calculated. While this is a demonstation of a restricted quantum computer, the same hardware can become a programmable and reconfigurable quantum computer.
- “Observation of a Many-Body Dynamical Phase Transition in a 53-Qubit Quantum Simulator,” J. Zhang, G. Pagano, P. W. Hess, A. Kyprianidis, P. Becker, H. B. Kaplan, A. V. Gorshkov, Z.-X. Gong, and C. Monroe, Nature 551, 601 (2017)
- JQI News Release
Connectivity between qubits in a quantum computer may be as important as clock speed and gate fidelity when it comes time to build large-scale quantum computers. We run several quantum algorithms on two 5-qubit programmable quantum computers: our fully-connected ion trap system, and the IBM Quantum Experience superconducting system. The performance is seen to mirror the connectivity of the systems, with the ion trap system out-performing the superconducting system on all results, but particularly when the algorithm demands more connections. This first comparison of algorithms on different platforms shows the power of having a programmable and reconfigurable system, which will be critical to successfully adapt to new quantum algorithms as they are discovered.
- “Experimental Comparison of Two Quantum Computing Architectures,” N. M. Linke, D. Maslov, M. Roetteler, S. Debnath, C. Figgatt, K. A. Landsman, K. Wright, C. Monroe, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 114, 13 (2017).
- JQI News Release
In a delicate balance between strong interactions, weak disorder, and a periodic driving force, a collection of trapped ions qubits has been made to pulsate with a period that is relatively insensitive to the drive. This is a time crystal, where the stable pulses emerge and break time symmetry – just like a freezing liquid breaks spatial symmetry and forms a spatial crystal. Trapped ion qubits can pulsate on their own with excellent passive stability, but this observation may guide the stabilization of complex solid-state systems, where true quantum behavior is usually masked by defects and impurities.
- “Observation of a Discrete Time Crystal,” J. Zhang, P. W. Hess, A. Kyprianidis, P. Becker, A. Lee, J. Smith, G. Pagano, I.-D. Potirniche, A. C. Potter, A. Vishwanath, N. Y. Yao, C. Monroe, Nature 543, 217 (2017).
- Nature news article on time crystals
- JQI News Release
It’s just a five-qubit quantum computer, and anything it does is easily simulated on a laptop. However, these trapped ion qubits are fully connected, with entangling gates between all possible pairs. The qubits are dynamically “wired” from the outside with patterns of laser beams, so we can run any algorithm through software without modifying the base hardware. While the individual gate operations are only about 98% pure, it should be possible to exceed the >99.9% purity others have demonstrated with two isolated ions. Most importantly, we have blueprints for scaling this system up to useful dimensions.
“Many-body Localization” is an emergent quantum feature, where a system of disordered quantum particles does not thermalize even in the presence of strong interactions. MBL bestows some degree of quantum memory to an extended quantum system, even at high (or infinite) temperature where systems do not usually retain quantum coherence or entanglement. We observe the phenomenon of MBL in a controlled system of exactly 10 atoms with strong interactions and programmable disorder, bridging the chasm between controlled qubits and emergent features of condensed matter physics.